Overview – France


Entrepreneurship is the development of a business from the ground up — coming up with an idea and turning it into a profitable business.

We live in a time of complexity, confusion and uncertainties (political, social and economical). It is becoming more and more difficult to predict the future.

We want young people looking for employment to find their place, and careers, in a chaotic and changing society.  This may require shifting mindsets dramatically, from old-time job seeker to the modern innovative career entrepreneur.

There will still be jobs, but mostly for those who exhibit authentic leadership and entrepreneurship minds in all that they approach.



Frequently, large government institutions and large companies are the primary sources of funding for academic projects at the undergraduate and graduate level.  However, there is a large pool of untapped potential in introducing implementing and teaching entrepreneurship education programs. This will require a major shift in the thinking for academic institutions.

Here is the start of the entrepreneurial existence – as individual and as a collectivity.  It is not theory but practice, practice and more practice; action, action and more action.  

Homo Faber in Latin for “Man the Maker” is the concept of humans being able to control their fate and the environment through tools.

An entrepreneur is some who can take an innovative idea and organizes it to create a business venture.

Although the concept of Homo Faber is know from older anthropological theories, modern philosophers such as Hannah Arendt and Max Scheler made the philosophical concept central again. Henri Bergson also referred to the concept in Creative Evolution (1907), defining intelligence, in its original sense, as the “faculty to create artificial objects, in particular tools to make tools, and to indefinitely variate its makings.” One major characteristic of an entrepreneur is to be able to see opportunities where and when others might sees challenges.

This requires a transition from meta-thinking and the meta-language to contributes and to facilitate the entrepreneurial activities.


How is entrepreneurship education perceived in general?


The general question that arises when talking about entrepreneurship is “are individuals born entrepreneurs or do they become entrepreneurs. “No one is genetically programmed to become an entrepreneur, or born to be an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is a pattern of behavior; it is an attitude that should be nurture, supported and encouraged. “(Kets de Vries and Stevenson, 2007).

In the resent years, the teaching of entrepreneurship has grown considerably. The United States was pioneers. The late 90s and the years 2000s have marked the new era for modern entrepreneurship. Even though the United States of America was leading this effort, the trend is becoming global with the creation of different entrepreneurial programs within the premises of the universities and this has become a prevalent topic among many European countries (Fayolle, « Le métier de créateurd’entreprise », Ed. d’Organisation, 2003).


Figure 1: Percentage of entrepreneurial activities by continent


As depicted in the figure 1, the drivers of the entrepreneurial activities in rapidly growing markets are moving from necessity to opportunity. [U. SCHREIBE, “Entrepreneurship rising,” Exceptional, pp. 42-43, July – December 2015].

It is important to note that the demographic of entrepreneurship is getting younger: nearly 50% of the world’s entrepreneurs are aged between 25 and 44 years. The 25-34 years old range shows the highest rates of entrepreneurial activities. In the rapid-growth markets for example in China, 57% of entrepreneurs are between 25 and 34 years old. [U. SCHREIBE, “Entrepreneurship rising,” Exceptional, pp. 42-43, July – December 2015]

Also, when looking at gender, one can note that the number of female entrepreneurs is increasingly. Today, 126 millions of women are launching brand new business in 67 economies around the world. At least 48 million female entrepreneurs currently employ one or more people in their business. In the US, they are contributing nearly 19% to the US economy and directly delivering 23 million jobs. [U. SCHREIBE, “Entrepreneurship rising,” Exceptional, pp. 42-43, July – December 2015]


Overview of entrepreneurship in France

According to Adam Mitchell, the French Government is planning to launch a new concept of school of entrepreneurship (France 24, 2013-08-27). The school will aim at teaching entrepreneurship skills with an Equal Access Opportunity (EAO) contrary to what is happening today where most entrepreneurship programs are taught in elite business schools. Individuals from both public and private institutions will manage this new school. It would offer programs in the legal, accounting and business administration, thus integrating the cultural reality of France.


In general France is often looked at as a country with a low entrepreneurship culture. When comparing data, one can see that the entrepreneurship culture in France is very dynamic. Since 2001 the number of businesses created have almost tripled, as represented in Figure 2, especially due to the implementation of the auto-entrepreneur status in 2009. [Centre d’analyse stratégique, “L’entrepreneuriat en France,” 2012 October 2012. [Online]. Available: http://archives.strategie.gouv.fr/cas/content/entrepreneuriat-en-france-na-296- 297.html ]

Fig. 2: National repertoire of businesses |Source : INSEE, répertoire des entreprises et des établissements (SIRENE)

This evolution indicates a real entrepreneurial dynamism in France a key element in support of economic growth.
This implementation of the auto-entrepreneur status has increased the services sector weight going from 15% to 21% of auto-entrepreneurship mainly in construction and commerce activities. [Centre d’analyse stratégique, “L’entrepreneuriat en France,” 2012 October 2012. [Online]. Available: http://archives.strategie.gouv.fr/cas/content/entrepreneuriat-en-france-na-296- 297.html ]

APCE stands for Agence Pour la Creation des Entreprises it is a National Agency that aims at supporting business creation by guiding entrepreneurs and making available all the necessary resources. The use of the APCE services has highly increase over the years and provide the French Entrepreneurial Index. [Centre d’analyse stratégique, “L’entrepreuneriat en France – Volet 1 – Mythes et réalité en comparaison internationale – La note d’analyse n°296,” Octobre 2012. [Online]. Available: http://archives.strategie.gouv.fr/cas/system/files/2012-10-25_entrepreneuriait-volet1-na296.pdf.  


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